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Sex determination of a person occurs in terms of the XY-mechanism (this heterogametic sex is male) and  includes three stages: chromosomal, gonadal, and phenotypic. The presence or absence of Y-chromosome is crucial for determining the sex. In the absence of the Y-chromosome, there occurs differentiation of gonads into ovaries and, as a result, a female […]

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Human genetic makeup is a sophisticated phenomenon because it introduces unique traits of an individual which combines genetic information received from parents. Talking about a chromosome, one should consider the role of an X and a Y chromosome in shaping the genome of a human. At this point, Ridley (2006) assumes that a gene is […]

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The laboratory represents a dangerous environment, since there are many potential biological, physical, chemical, and radioactive hazards there. They have a harmful effect on the human body and they may cause different injuries and illnesses. Hazardous substances can easily enter the human organism by breathing in the form of gases and dust, coming into contact […]

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Evolution refers to the process by which living organisms gradually change from simple life forms to more complex ones over a long period of time. Studying evolution is crucial since it helps humans to comprehend their life history. Therefore, it is important to understand evolution because it is a focal point for scientific investigation into […]

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Biologics is the scientific process by which the human biological materials are reproduced and used in the process of curing diseases. The biologic technology is the use of genetic engineering to produce the necessary substances for treating illnesses. This method can be applied to engineer the blood clotting factors, produce proteins, antibodies and hormones. The […]

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Abstract This research paper describes the process of photosynthesis and cellular respiration stages as well as their interactions, interdependence, and significance to evolution and diversity of life. Light-dependent reactions represent the first stage of photosynthesis occurring in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. Light from the sun is converted to NADPH and ATP in the presence of […]

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