The main topic is studying ancient philosophers and their contribution to the modern society. The development of philosophy is an example of the outstanding process that influences the universe till nowadays. The historical overview of the development of philosophical ideas starts from the 7th century B. C. Ancient times gave us the knowledge that we still take. Many problems of our society can be solved with the help of the philosophy of Socrates, Confucius and Sophocles. The central idea is that the wise minds of ancient philosophers still decode the majority of processes in our daily life. This research decodes how the masterpiece of the ancient philosophers was developed and what they wanted to bring us.
The ancient Greek thinkers represented the idea of pure love of wisdom. It is so-called Speculative Leap. The ordinary citizens of ancient Greece viewed cataclysms as something supernatural. In comparison thinkers see the natural processes as a theorized thing with a certain explanation. It is about the Speculative Leap when philosophers moved from supernatural to the natural causes. Somehow it can be called the rational explanation. Asking what the universe is made of they want to answer questions about surrounding. In addition they underlined the universe has no features of permanents. So people live in the constant process of movement. The strong desire to answer the complex questions is supported with a critical thinking method of ancient philosophers.
The philosophy stream grew wiser and faster. Sophists of Greece praised the sky for the role of knowledge. Philosophic suppositions about all the gifts and phenomenon of the world around spill over the numerous scientific disciplines. First of all, there are Pre-Socratics who establish the humanistic stream in a philosophy. Pre –Socrates try to discover the ground of being. The most famous representatives of Sophists are Socrates and Plato who are searching for the metaphysical explanation of knowledge. The meaning of human dignity is wide enough. However, the understanding of this term is represented by the sense of moral values and worthy human qualities. The great values of these qualities were spread with the help of Sophocles philosophy. In fact, he was the innovator of drama. The majority of information about his life is not absolutely trustworthy. Despite this fact many scientists accept the idea that Sophocles was born in Colonus near Athens (497/496-406/405 BCE). Colonus appeared to shape Sophocles as one of the most outstanding creators of the tragedy genre. In addition, Sophocles can be characterized as a politically savvy individual. He was one to understand clearly the relationships of the government and citizens. Sophocles took part in the emergency after the failure in war against the Syracuse. All his views, emissions and ideas were reflected in one of his surviving works – “Antigone”.
«Antigone» is based on the Athens myth. The context of the text is represented in the context events in Thebes before the Trojan wars. It should be underlined that the name of Antigone was mentioned a few times. The central roles in the myth are played by her father Edip and her brothers. However, we can say that «Antigone» had its roots in myths. The lion's share of the Sophocles poem was fictitious. «Antigone» is full of humanistic ideas. From the very beginning of the poem the author glorifies the knowledge and wisdom of a human mind. Sophocles had a strong believe on Greek gods. The choir in the poem sings that human is not able to avoid the penalty of Zeus. Sophocles writes that destiny is not the reason to be pessimist. There is a certain order of the universe. Zeus created world according to harmony and everlasting laws. One of the major themes of «Antigone» is the differences between righteous and unfair power. From the first sight Kreont does not suffer from abuse of power. He is fair, clever and protects his possessions. He said that he would never accept the public enemy as his friend. Unfortunately, Sophocles dethroned Kreont when he argues with Antigone. Kreont's tyranny is raised when Kreont neglects the moral values. Antigone opposes and Kreont prisons her. The only thing she wants is to bury her brother traditionaly. Kreont is not afraid when the envoy forewarns him about the fair justice of Zeus. Antigone was imprisoned unfairly. Further Kreont is remorseful of his deeds. But it is too late. Antigone hung herself. The lesson of the text is quite simple. Sophocles claimed that there is no unconditional superiority of power. As a rule, moral principles of the individual are much more necessary. «Antigone» glorifies the nature of democracy. «I have nothing but contempt for the kind of governor who is afraid, for whatever reason, to follow the course that he knows is best for the State; and as for the man who sets private friendship above the public welfare – I have no use for him either.”- wrote Sophocles in “Antigone”.
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The brightest philosopher of Athens is Socrates (470-399 BCE). He was a son of stone quarry. His life was quite simple. The questions he raised were more than discussive. He promoted the idea that people should attain the acknowledgement about what is good. He states that the truth can be obtained with the help of dialogues. Socrates was the first philosopher who defined the main aim of these sciences. He says that the main purpose of philosophy is self- identification of personality, it is a way to discover who you are. Nobody knows if Socrates spread the realistic ideas but some resources tell us that he had a strong believe in reincarnation. Unfortunately, there are no survived works of Socrates. He avoided writing. The ideas and themes of his life were reflected in the writings of his pupils. First of all, it is the writings of Plato.
Plato (427-347 BCE) was born in the aristocratic family. He started his philosophy way after the death of his teacher- Socrates. According to his opinion, the truth can be obtained through the beauty and fairness. Plato's Republic is based on his ethical principles. He sees the virtue as the highest good for the society. The main aim of the State is to support each individual with a virtue and happiness. All the existing laws should be created according to the will and needs of the society. Individual of the Plato's republic should subordinate the prescribed laws and welfare. The relationships among the members of Republic should reflect the morality and fairness. The ideas of Plato were created for the rational society. His major idea was that the virtuous and rational society has to be governed by laws. The Republic is an ideal state. Some philosophers call it Utopia. However, some sources tell us that the ideas of Republic took its place in Sparta. Furthermore, the idea of Plato's republic is relevant even in our times. First of all, we should pay a great attention to this quote: “In politics we presume that everyone who knows how to get votes knows how to administer a city or a state. When we are ill… we do not ask for the handsomest physician, or the most eloquent one.” Centuries have past. These words are still relevant.
The philosophy has different names and colours. Ancient China presented us the great philosopher Confucius (551-479 BCE). The first part of life Confucius spent in a small kingdom Lu. He was born in a family of aristocratic representatives so he got an expensive and quality education. But this information can not be considered as absolutely trustworthy. This thinker thought that the moral values of the society have a powerful impact on the nature. However, all his ideas and basic themes were aimed to achieve the ideal order in the society. In fact, Confucius was very capable in the questions of politics. He believed that only self –disciplined people can govern. For Confucius the «virtue» (so-called «de») could characterize superior rulership. Confucius blamed unworthy people in their self-absorption. He was a kind of philosopher who defined necessary features for the worthy men. In his opinion it is a man who can live in the peaceful relations with others. It is a man who is attentive to the words of wise man and God. This man should be disciplined and law-abiding. Confucius saw the kindness, morality and humanity as basic qualities worthy individual. Only in this case he deserves power to govern.
The last philosopher of the research is Abu Hamid Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muhammad al-Tusi al-Shafi'i al-Ghazali. He was born in 1058 A.D. in Khorasan, Iran. He was born in the family of strong Islamic believers. His impact on the development of the philosophy is deep and everlasting. Being the representative of Islam he promotes Sufism. He was fond of Aristotelian logic. Al Ghazali can be called the soul guide of his times. “There are two aspects of individual harmony: the harmony between body and soul, and the harmony between individuals. All the tragedy in the world, in the individual and in the multitude, comes from lack of harmony. And harmony is the best given by producing harmony in one's own life”, Al- Ghazali wrote. His basic idea was that Muslims should take the information carefully and accurately. He stated that the Muslim society get the information that has no harmful effect on the values and believes. Al-Ghazali criticized the western philosophy, especially the ideals of Plato’s Republic. At the same time he shared the majority of the ancient Greek ideals and views. He was interested in mysticism and adapted its principles to the orthodox principles of Islam. The major theme of his works was a strong desire to formulate the society. In his point of view children should be brought up with high moral standards. In addition, he criticized the Western philosophy because of its metaphysical ideals.
Nowadays our world is far away from the harmony. The globe still suffers from the conflicts. People all around the world are able to watch the Ukrainian crisis. Each of us discusses it, some of us only listen to the hot debates about the annex of Crimea. During these events nobody can stay indifferent to the citizens of Ukraine. There are people who are capable to use the complicated political terms. This problem is about money, power and ambitions. Look through the information about the ancient philosophers. People (especially politicians) forgot about morality and dignity. They forgot about their place among others. They forgot that they are the same citizens as others. There is no special trick in the philosophy of ancient times.
Ukrainian people who suffer from the ambitions of Russia have the same nature as all the people in the world. So let us remember that all of us are equal. In the same time each of us should be worthy member of the mankind. The central idea is that the wise minds of ancient philosophers still decode the majority of processes in our daily life. Their simple ideas can be a kind of solution or recommendation for the Ukrainian politics.