It is likely that the ability of a country to introduce sports mega-events is usually endorsed with the need to inspire people for sports activities, which illustrates the increase of sports facilities and a number of people engaged in sports before and after the completion of the sports mega-event. Therefore, it is assumed that the governments use a policy model with the help of which people are encouraged to participate in the sports activities. This policy model could be perceived as the creation of opportunities and appropriate environment for people to participate in the sports activities as a result of which this policy model is likely to be successful.
Hence, the goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of sports mega-events such as, for example, the FIFA Football World Cup and Olympic Games on the participation of the general population in sports. An analysis should be made with respect to whether such sports mega-events could encounter success or failure. The vast majority of sports practices illustrate that sports mega-events have a powerful positive impact on the community of the host city, which offers a sound insight into the value of the sports mega-events policy model and its success in the host country (Pillay & Bass 2008).
Sports mega-events may be organized within a single country to attract as many participants as possible. This requires the utilization of communicating technologies that altogether contribute to the target sports audience (Matheson 2006a). Such technologies may include commercial television and social and digital media as the instruments of contributing to the growth of the sports sector, for example, a direct positive impact of sports mega-events on the active participation of the population after the event is over. In essence, mass media and television help to strengthen the participation support of people in sporting events. Today, the Internet and satellite television serve as the most important communication tools that address the opportunities of sports in the life of people while promoting active physical life and healthy habits on both national and global levels (Matheson 2006b).
In addition to the estimated funding, millions of dollars are spent to manage such events with the help of individual sponsors, owners of sports leagues, organizers of sports events, and public subsidies (Horne & Manzenreiter 2006). In addition, sports federations and associations tend to participate in the supervision of such events on both national and international levels (Maening & Zimbalist 2012). In theory, the development of sports mega-events formed an alliance of the global sports, media channels, and business segment that altogether have a strong impact on the lives of people and lead to the transformation in the area of sports and interconnected public events. In this sense, mega sporting events take advantage of sport alliances by means of sponsorship, media broadcasts, sports marketing, promotion and advertising of sports goods, and merchandising of sporting services (Tomlinson & Bass 2012). The cooperation of business, media and sport sectors have a strong positive impact on the host city as well as the whole country (Horne & Manzenreiter 2006).
The positive effect of sports mega-events has economic, political, social, and touristic sides. The effect on the economic level could be perceived as the increased investment into the sports sector; for example, the government of the host county may invest in building additional sport centers in the host city. This will allow the general population to keep fit as well as contribute to the economy of the country by an increased sale of goods and services at the sports centers. The other benefits are funding sports constructions and / or building international airports to handle thousands of passengers and hundred thousand tons of cargo per year. It has been suggested that the goal is to provide thousands of people with full time jobs as well as with the ability to hold another sports mega-event in the country (Black & van der Westhuizen 2004).
There is a strong argument towards investing a great portion of the profit generated during the sports mega-event in the creation of new sport associations all over the host city and across the country (Black & van der Westhuizen 2004). It has been frequently argued that the organizers of sports mega-events have a strong interest in managing them with the goal of influencing the lives of the communities. It is difficult to verify that the funding retrieved for sports mega-events has a strong economic effect since it is invested into the construction of new sports facilities, which results in the subsequent income for the host city and local community sport incentives (Brown & Massey 2001).
The economic side of sports life closely relates to the political environment. Thus, the economic relations between the neighboring countries can be strengthened with the political engagement and support of the sports movement in the host country. The social nature of the sport events can be seen in the interactions of government with the general population who actively participate in the sports activities and engage in sports communities established by the government and private entrepreneurs. Altogether economic, political, social aspects of sports life driven by the sports mega-events result in the tourists wishing to travel to the host city of the next sports mega-event (Brown & Massey 2001).
Olympic Games and FIFA Football World Cup
Sport mega-events are perceived as significant cultural phenomena that play a huge role in the development of sports communities. Events such as the FIFA Football World Cup and the Olympic Games have a great impact on the beliefs and attitudes of people towards sports activities (Gold & Gold 2011; Pillay & Bass 2008). They attract substantial coverage in mass media, which has a strong impact on the host city, its region, and the entire community of the host country (Black & van der Westhuizen 2004). As a result, the communities of the host country start having more interest in the particular sports events on a local or national level (Tomlinson & Bass 2012). In this sense, such sports events bring a challenging message to the public through the local television and Internet with the purpose of increasing the significance of sports in the lives of people. Events such as the FIFA Football World Cup and the Olympic Games attract billions of the general population (Gold & Gold 2011; Pillay & Bass 2008).
It has been frequently argued that investments in a host city have a high impact on the sport incentives of the local communities. Furthermore, they inspire the development of sport municipalities, and the overall image of the country grows with respect to the attitudes and opinions of other countries globally (Matheson 2006b). Sport environments serve as a great incentive for the local community to promote national sports activities after the sports mega-events are over; for example, sport disciplines addressed during the Olympic Games include over a hundred sport activities in diverse spheres (Matheson 2006a). Moreover, one of the greatest examples of a successful sports mega-event among the international communities is the creation of the Paralympic Games for athletes who have disabilities and the Youth Olympic Games aimed at the athlete teenagers (Gold & Gold 2011).
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The Likelihood of Success of Mega Sport Events
Sports mega-events create opportunities for constructing new innovative sports facilities and restructuring the existing ones (Horne & Manzenreiter 2006). In fact, the governments of different countries develop the infrastructure of the cities, which leads to the construction of the additional leisure facilities, including sports centers with open spaces (Barget & Gouguet 2007). These developments improve the looks of the host city and remind its citizens about the sports mega-events and their importance for the country, which serves as an inspiration for the local communities to participate in the physical movement (Maening & Zimbalist 2012). Sports mega-events are meant to influence the habits of the general population and encourage people to take active part in sports activities (Brown & Massey 2001).
Mega sports events are frequently recognized as a tool of encouraging people to go in for sports. It is proven that a policy model of the host countries has a strong positive impact on the development of the sports sector and the overall success for the host government and the country. Events such as the Olympic Games and the FIFA World Cup may serve as the basis for the development of the sports spirit in the community. In this sense, sports mega-events serve as a basis for the growth and development of the sports sector in the host country. The evidence of such progress is represented by the number of sport developments carried out in the host country in the year that represents a sports mega-event such as the Olympic Games and / or the FIFA World Cup. Thus, the research findings offer strong arguments for the success of the governmental sports policy model in the host countries all over the world.