The main theme of this research project is the analysis of major discoveries in modern biology. The work includes the discussion of significant biology branches and their achievements. The topic has been chosen because it is relevant and interesting to explore. To complete the study, only scholar biological resources have been utilized in order to provide clear and reliable information. The aim of the research is to define the significance of the modern discoveries in biology. Comparative analysis and cognitive synthesis have helped to divide the material into several units and distinguish its general characteristics. Consequently, it was possible to determine the general importance and achievements of the modern biology.
Keywords: biology, DNA, evolution
Humanity has always sought to develop plants with improved quality and increased cold tolerance. In fact, biotechnological achievements became the basis of this process. Scientists have used selection to create new and improve the existing species of crops and livestock breeds. Furthermore, they use biotechnology to create microorganisms with valuable features for humans. This process implies taking the plants with specific characteristics and crossbreeding them. Genetic engineering allows to directly intervene in the genetic apparatus of cells. As a result, scientists have added several useful features without losing other useful properties of plants. This method is essential for the creation of valuable new varieties and forms of plants. Thus, the researchers got the opportunity to change sensitivity to insects, climate, and diseases.
Modern biotechnology identified some general stages of implementing new forms of plants. The first stage was accompanied by the creation of plants with new specific characteristics such as resistance to viruses and parasites. Scientists introduced just one gene and forced it to synthesize an additional protein. The second stage was accompanied by the creation of plants with new consumer properties. Among them, there were plants with a high content of oils. Besides, scientists developed fruits, crops, and vegetables with many vitamins. In recent days, they are producing plants that may soon appear as plant vaccines and plant-bioreactors in the production of industrial products. The modern biotechnology for the animals has another task. It is creating animals with a specific target gene. These animals have a specific protein that prevents bleeding in patients with hemophilia, or an enzyme that promotes the resorption of a blood clot in the blood vessels. The researchers also suggest that gene transfer can help reduce a person’s allergy to cow’s milk. Therefore, these progressive achievements of biotechnology in plants and animals play an important role in solving the social and demographic problems.
Furthermore, biotechnology of plants contributed to the creation of specific medications. This progressive industry represents one of the modern branches of biotechnology. In fact, more than a quarter of medicines used in the world contain ingredients from plants. Genetically modified plants are the cheap and safe source of the fully functional medicinal proteins. An example of the use of genetic engineering in medicine is the production of human insulin using genetically modified bacteria. Thanks to scientific advances in this field, scientists provided genetic certification. This process involves a thorough research and analysis of the human genotype carried out to determine one’s predisposition to various diseases. Furthermore, this process includes studying possible drug reactions and a tendency to certain activities. Genetic certification allows predicting and reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Besides, this process helps to explore and prevent neurodegenerative diseases and the aging process. Lastly, it also helps to analyze the neurophysiologic features of the person at the molecular level.
In the XXI century, most countries around the world directed their main efforts to medical treatment of chronic diseases, diseases of the cardiovascular system, and cancer because these conditions are reported to have the greatest percentage of mortality. Thus, the significant achievements of genetics allowed not only to enter the molecular genetics structures of the body, but also reveal the essence of many serious human diseases that come close to the gene therapy. In addition, based on medical and genetic knowledge, scientists have received the possibility of early diagnosis of hereditary diseases and their timely prevention. The development of new methods of hereditary diseases diagnosis is currently the most important area of medical genetics. Due to the wide application of biotechnology in pharmaceutics and medicine, scientists provide a new concept of personalized medicine. At the same time, physicians are able to treat the patient based on his individual and genetic features. Drugs used in the treatment process are produced individually for each patient based on his condition. Therefore, biotechnology is an incredibly important science, and its modern-day achievements are fundamental for the progressive human development.
The Discoveries in Evolution
Researches argued that man evolved from apes, but humanity always wanted to know the general stages and mechanisms of this evolution. The modern discoveries in evolution assert that the human genome is 96% similar to the genomes of chimpanzees. However, the physical and mental differences between these organisms are huge. Modern research shows that a person in the course of evolution became a man not because of the acquisition of new genes but because of the loss of some DNA fragments. Scientists have discovered the elements that are present in the DNA of the chimpanzee but absent in human DNA. According to them, most of these areas have already disappeared from the genome of Neanderthal man. Scientists studied two main segments that have regulatory functions. One portion regulates the production of a protein responsible for the production of male hormones. Another portion controls the growth of animal cells in the brain. Its loss has led to the uncontrolled growth of neurons in certain areas of the brain. This process became the reason for the increased variability of cancer. In contrast, this process caused the appearance of mental abilities and the formation of social functions. Moreover, researchers found a significant confirmation that the man and modern apes have a common ancestor. Scientists have found the remains of primates with the physical characteristics peculiar to monkeys and humans. A detailed theoretical analysis shows that the division between the two branches occurred about 30 or 35 million years ago. These discoveries have major importance for the development of evolution theory and the understanding of the man’s origin.
Late 20th and early 21st century brought a number of discoveries and achievements in biology. In fact, a modern biology has a number of branches, which have specific features that are significant for humanity. DNA research, cell biology, biotechnology, and evolution are among the most common studies. The human genome research became one of the most important achievements of biology because it provides information about genes and their relation to diseases. The discoveries of plant’s types in biotechnology become the basis of general human development and solution of social problems. The new proof of the connection between man and apes’ evolution process became the significant element of world perception. Consequently, a modern biology has a great significance for the human development.