Toledo an economist introduced societal political and economic reforms in Peru in the sixteenth and seventeenth century. These reforms were mainly targeting at streamlining corruption and the Indio social Backlash changes. Prior to his reform the enormous economic and political corruption was taking place. It is evident that clergy, entrepreneurs, Kurakas, and royal officials did what was within their reach to profit themselves from the system. As a result of the escalating colonial society there was the development of social backlash in the Indios that was not expected.
Francisco de Toledo's reforms include the following: he enacted reforms that increased the overall number of local and royal officials, most of their desires were to compromise the system, significantly enriching themselves. His reforms gave chance to a large number of Spanish to exploit and dehumanize the Indio’s. For example, pay low for the Indio’s productivity; thus they were able to increase the revenue corrected and hence soothing the crown. To some extent either directly or indirectly his reform allowed the assimilation of the Indios, therefore, enabling them to change, hide or adapt. This enabled them to avoid the responsibilities of the Indio’s Caste system.
More so, in 1569 Toledo was dispatched from Spain to Spanish Peru where he was made the Viceroy by King Philip two. It was expect that Toledo would make political reforms that were aimed at subordinating the native population of Andes. Additionally, the reforms aimed at acquiring optimum workers of the mines and maximizing the revenue collected for the royal treasury. Firstly, he imposed a regularized mechanism for taxation. Secondly, he congregated the indigenous native population into large towns that were of strategic purpose. Thirdly, they developed a forced labor regime that was aimed at supporting the silver mines at Bolivia and Peru.
These reforms were intended to address some social political and economic problems and the government hoped to accomplish some of the following objectives to the policies of Spain in their Viceroyalty of Peru. It was a bit difficult for the Spanish government to maintain the order at Andes. There were some problems that were emanating from the new laws that were enacted in 1542; by establishing them at Blasco Nunez Vela it weakened the encomienda system. After people were organized into large town of indigenous people they were divided into districts for administrative purposes. These districts were headed by Kuraka and this enabled the Spanish to have full control over the Andes. By imposing the regularized taxation they aimed at collecting tax that would enable them to run their colony and each male between the ages of 18 to 50 was supposed to pay this tax. The amount to be paid by the person was in accordance with his social status. Finally, the forced labor introduced was to be utilized at silver and mercury mines of upper Peru and Peru. This system was strategically aimed at transferring the wealthy gained at mines to Spain.
The functionaries and the colonial viceroys found themselves in economic and political crises. The latter include: demographic collapse, financial crises realization, civil rebellions such as indigenous upraises. After the collapse of the Spanish rule in Indian there was the reconstruction of the Christian colony, which was benevolent. However, this was equally authoritative but was a Christ service. This system was forbidding most people from working on Sundays. The new rules brought by the Spanish implicated new ethical ideas and capitations, which led to the replacement of the indigenous women in the post with the heterogeneous real peasant female who were imagined to be elite. These changes created unemployment problems. Peru was divided into small provinces and districts that were responsible for administering the area. The exportation of silver and mercury to other countries led to price revolution. Additionally, there emerged a genocide, which led to the death of many Indians.
The revolution at Venezuela
Francisco de Miranda who was the leader of the Verde conquered the revolutionary army of the Venezuela. This group surrendered on 12th July 1812 at la victory and this ended the revolutionary war first phase. After the defeat of Simon Bolivar in 1812 he fled to New Granada and later came with a new army. At this junction the war was in a violent phase however the local aristocrats dropped from it and this forced the Mulattos and the blacks to go on with the struggle alone. Bolivar’s defeated the Spanish army in a series of wars. Significantly, on 6 August 1813 he took Caracas and on September 1813 he conquered Montverde. However, the rebels’ victory was short lived since Jose Tomas led a military, which turned over the independence victory.
This was followed by a series of war lead by Pablo Murillo and Bolivar. Despite of the unsuccessful invades in 1819 Bolivar lead a successful ones at New Granada and in April 1821 he took back Venezuela. Later in June 24 he defeated the Spanish and the Venezuelan acquired its independence. This fights and rebellions were mainly focused at acquiring land resources and labor inform of slaves. Therefore, fighting the rebels meant fighting against slavery, forcefully acquiring of lands, and high taxation among others.
Ecuadorian war of Independence
Ecuadorian first war of Independence took place in 1809; however, Ecuador secured its full independence in 1822. After that the country became an associate of Gran Colombia but later in 1830 it withdrew from this. Quito, which was the nickname of Ecuador capital, was the first town to revolve the Spanish occupation of Ecuador. This name served as an inspiration and an urge to call out people to fight for independence. On 24th may 1822 Antonio Jose led an army that defeated the French at Quito. This defeat was the breakthrough for Ecuador liberation. The latter included free from forced labor, acquired back their lands, and freed from high taxation. Antonio joined other southern American leaders and assisted them in the liberation of countries such as Chile, Peru, and Argentina.
From these analyses it is evident that the rebellions were successful. The reason is because they were led by wise intelligent leaders. More so, the indigenous population was much determined to see the success of rebellion. The French army was defeated; therefore Ecuador and Venezuelan acquired their independence.
This relates to some events in Europe in such a way that most its countries were in search of colonies in Asia and America. However, most states were fighting so that they would acquire self-independence. This is the same incidence that happened at Peruvian when they were fighting for their independence from the Spanish. Most European countries had acquired countries for several reasons such as to get minerals, taxes, labor among others. However, most of the colonized countries started to rebel.
These revolts relate to each other in terms of causality since both of them are rebellions against colonialism. The rebelling communities are fighting for factors such as return of their cities, lands, against forced labor just to mention a few. Additionally, the outcomes are related since after the revolution the rebelling communities are granted independence.
The revolts seem to follow a similar pattern since a series of rebellion are waged against the colonizing nations. There are leaders who guide these rebellions and a certain number of armies who used similar weapons. However, these revolts have differences; for instance, they were conducted in various geographical locations, and different native people were involved in diverse rebellions.