Global warming is the process of progressive increase in the average temperature of the Earth. Scientists attribute this to the increasing number of carbon dioxide and dust in the atmosphere, which prevent heat radiation on the Earth from coming back into space. Heat accumulates and breaks the usual climatic conditions. Increase of the temperature on Earth even by
The reason for the occurrence of such process as global warming is the “greenhouse effect”. The “greenhouse effect” occurs due to the release into the atmosphere of the planet of “greenhouse gases” – various freon, carbon dioxide, water vapor and methane. By creating an atmospheric layer, the gases pass through solar radiation, which heats the earth, but the heat that is radiated by the land is not let back into space. Thus, heat accumulates and the planet becomes warmer. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced by burning fossil fuels, especially oil. This is the base component that causes the formation of the “greenhouse effect”. As a result of incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide (CO) is extracted. It is a toxic gas that has harmful effect on the cardio-vascular system. CO2 molecules pass the wave of ultraviolet solar radiation, but absorb long-wave radiation in the infrared spectrum of frequencies that cause an increase in temperature of the atmosphere.
Climate change is one of the most critical environmental problems that humanity faces. Climate change does not mean just an increase of temperature. The term “global climate change” means restructuring of Geosystems. Warming is considered only as an aspect of the climate change. The sea-level rise, melting glaciers and permafrost, increasingly uneven rainfall, the change of river flow regime and other global changes are associated with climate instability. The effects of climate change are already evident, including those in the form of increased frequency and intensity of dangerous weather conditions and the spread of infectious diseases. They cause significant economic losses, threaten the existence of stable ecosystems and the health and lives of people. Climate change, which is ongoing, may in the future lead to even more dangerous consequences if humanity does not take appropriate precautionary measures.
Energy conservation is a way to reduce the rate of global warming. Energy sources used by humanity are divided into renewable – burned biomass and waste, urban waste, hydropower and geothermal energy, and non-renewable – fossil mineral fuels and nuclear energy. The former do not violate the Earth’s radiation balance as when they are used, only some types of energy transforms in others. However, the use of non-renewable sources causes additional heating of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. In particular, oil resources cause the formation of the “greenhouse effect”, destruction of the ozone layer and increase in the temperature of the atmosphere. This is dangerous because it can lead to changes in the level of water in the oceans, which, in turn, will change the value of the land and water, affecting the Earth’s climate, its flora and fauna. Thus, there is the thermal limit that humanity should not overstep; otherwise it will lead to catastrophic consequences.
Reducing the use of non-renewable energy sources and increasing the use of renewables is the prospect of saving the planet’s climate. Ideally, the renewable energy sources also have to be replaced with the alternative ones (for instance, solar energy and wind power), but some time is needed to do that.
Non-renewable energy is a major supplier of electricity. Energy is needed for heating and cooking; it also makes the work of industries possible. Therefore, it is important to conserve the energy. Energy conservation includes a number of measures aimed at saving heat and electricity and using alternative energy sources. There are different ways to benefit from using various alternative energy sources and technologies. Solar energy is the kinetic energy of the radiation, which is formed as a result of the thermonuclear reactions in the solar interior. Solar energy is one of those alternatives, ignoring which will lead to the catastrophic consequences for humanity in the near future. The use of solar energy is a progressive method of obtaining various types of energy. However, people began to think about the use of this technology only in the last century. Some of today’s solar technologies are natural lighting systems. They are used for decorating offices and dwellings as the alternative to electric lamps. In addition to aesthetic and psychological satisfaction, natural lighting systems help to save electricity and are famous among connoisseurs of unusual architectural buildings. Another energy source is wind power, which is, undoubtedly, one of the most economical ones. Mistaken claims about wind power often scare people away from the use of this energy source. However, wind turbines are a very promising way to obtain energy from clean sources (Jacobson). Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy of the wind into electricity. Nowadays, the wind power stations are everywhere. Wind turbines can be put in place and connected to the power supply system in a shorter period of time and at lower cost compared to the introduction of large power plants with complicated infrastructure. Therefore, developing countries should have a strong interest in wind power market.
Analyzing all the information discussed above, it is clear that man not only contributes to global warming, but local as well. It is almost impossible to eliminate the greenhouse effect by reducing emissions. That is why, people should try to use renewable energy. They should try to expend energy efficiently. Energy efficiency has become the focus of future development of the productive sectors and spheres of society. Measures of energy efficiency can be implemented by every person everywhere. There is also one more way to stop the increase of temperature through the use natural materials – trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants. The trees and grass cover will protect the soil from sunlight heating. A large green biomass will be able to absorb more carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. There is not much awareness about the issue of global warming. People live their lives everyday not caring about the world. Thus, the very problem needs to be discussed and examined, and that is why I chose the topic.