Due to the big number of biochemical processes, the World Ocean became the source of the life on the planet. The seawater contains the majority of all chemical elements. Oceans have diverse flora and fauna, and the bottom of the oceans contains immense reserves of natural resources. It also serves as the basis for the navy. All these factors make oceans and seas of the planet extremely significant for people. With time, this significance will continue growing. At the beginning of the human history, people used oceans for primitive fishing and gathering of shellfish. According to Fabbri (1992), the most intensive usage of the World Ocean started in the middle of the XX century. Nowadays the exploration of oceans takes one of the central places in the economy of the planet. The paper investigates the influence of the World Ocean on the global and local economies and the international relationships. Also, it discusses the environmental problems that may be caused by the industrial usage of the oceanic resources and suggests the solution for these issues.
Oceans have a vast influence both on the global and local economies. One-sixth part of employed people in the country work in the companies related with marine industry (National Ocean Policy Coalition, n.d.). More than a half of the American nation leaves no further than fifty miles away from the coastal line. One-third part of the GNP in the country is produced in the coastal zones. The main industries related to the ocean in the country are fishing, boating, tourism, transportation, etc. Almost 95 % of the international trade in the United States is carried out with the help of the maritime transport. The American fleet may move up to two billion tonnes inside and outside the internal ports. The beach zones receive 189 million tourists every year.
People, who live in the countries that have access to seas, have an opportunity to use biological and mineral resources of the World Ocean for the home industries. The global revenue of fishing may compose up to 80 billion dollars every year (The PEW Charitable Trusts, n.d.). The income of the industries connected with fishing may compose up to 240 billion dollars every year. Such scopes as tourism or transportation system form the economic income. Moreover, according to Milman (2015), the World Ocean soaks more than a half of the global carbon dioxide emissions being favorable for the ecological situation on the planet.
Due to the World Ocean, each nation has an opportunity to develop the international relations. The countries may cooperate in such spheres as environmental protection, international trade, and tourism. The central issue, which requires international cooperation and combined efforts of all countries, is ocean resources recovery that may be depleted due to the extensive usage of the marine wealth. It is also necessary to reduce the industrial and agricultural wastes that contaminate the World Ocean.
The diversity of usage and global production growth have altered the notion of economic exploration of the World Ocean. Over the recent years, it was treated only as the exploitation of the natural resources and the transport usage of the water surface. However, it is only one of the aspects of the World Ocean’s economy. Another issue is connected with the development of the global production, where the marine environment is involved in the production process. For example, it became the container for the agricultural waste products. With the help of the World Ocean, some branches of industry influence the other ones. For example, when seawater pollution reaches a certain limit and infringes the existing norms, it can be also restored by the self-refinement. The command of the standards requires special measures and expenses to restore the natural balance of the seawater.
Nowadays the principle of gradation is implemented for usage of the World Ocean resources. At the first stage of the anthropogenic influence on the marine area, the violation of the balance may be improved due to the processes of self-refinement. At the second phase, the changes caused by the industrial activity may be enhanced by the combined efforts of people and self-recovery. Therefore, they require financial expenses. At the third stage, the negative consequences may be improved only by the usage of technical means and large costs. Thus, the industrial usage of the World Ocean has a broader sense nowadays. It includes not only the usage of its resources but also the care of its recovery and protection. People should not only use the resources of the ocean but also take care of the rational usage and the reproduction of its biological and mineral wealth. Due to this attitude, the World Ocean will help the humanity to solve the food, water, and energy issues.
The World Ocean influences global and national economies in such industries like fishing, boating, tourism, transportation, etc. The World Ocean is also beneficial to the development of international relations. However, the excessive usage of biological and mineral resources of the ocean together with the industrial activity of the planet may cause the depletion of the ocean and its pollution. To solve these problems, it is necessary to combine all countries’ efforts in the efficient usage of oceans and the investments into the future of the globe.