The Role of Logistics and Transport at Education Establishments
Nowadays, the means of transport has become an inevitable part of our life. Different vehicles deliver any goods to every part of the planet. Internet shopping, importing and exporting the production from abroad demand using efficient air transport, as well as organize the delivery of the production, its storage and distribution. D. R. Roads (2012) in his article describes the necessity to introduce logistics and transportation at education establishments not as the scientifically important field, but as the routine every person follows. Learning the labels on the clothing items allows developing the interest to the international manufacturing and formulates the visualization of how the vehicles deliver it.
As many fields of business deal with logistics, because many companies use transportation worldwide, modern students want to be competitive and understand transportation principles. Therefore, it is necessary to be versed in the ways the system functions. The Career Clusters of Indiana State comprise Logistics as the field of studying according to the students’ interest and abilities.
Middle and high school establishments can provide Logistics as a subject. Certainly, this discipline is for college or university level, but every person should have general knowledge of business functioning to understand the system of company-customer interrelations. The time when inner combustion engine was the newest invention has passed, and now people transfer to the modern demands. The basis for any business is its infrastructure, which functionality is provided by the vehicles that ensure the connection, speed of the operations, and implementation of tasks each business has.
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The author of the article illustrates the best example of UPS advertisement campaign. The 30-second video demonstrates the importance of logistics, transport, and distribution and underlines their importance in the life of the society. That is why it is necessary to teach the Basics of Logistics at schools for children of different ages. Using Microsoft Office software, the Internet resources, and writing or drawing materials will help adapt the methodology of teaching Logistics. Moreover, new technologies can be used to schematically represent the stages of the delivery process, as well as show the distribution and the storage at the warehouses.
Including personal interest of students is an important aspect of revealing their capabilities and determining their future career or education. The actual and up-to-date understanding of business and logistics can help students in the understanding of their goals. In this case, the priorities develop the competitive spirit. The individuality and uniqueness of the preferences remain vital, thus creating their projects, the students choose individual methods and fields they like, but it requires some previous diagnostic tests too.
The Problems and Solutions in Maritime Transportation
Maritime transportation deals with crude oil. This aspect of logistics remains a matter of concert due to the negative consequences for the environment in case the oil tanker splits. Water pollution and extinction of many species constitute the main dangerous consequence for nature. It can worsen the ecosystems surrounding continents and, thus, requires a detailed study. Besides, the disaster can result in tremendous material loses of oil companies and influence the depletion of the resources. Consequently, the most effective way to avoid the dangerous outcomes of the oil spills is to prevent the accidents in the seas. It is a good idea for reducing the transport expenses and optimizing the delivery and loading system of oil tankers.
When studying the problem of water transportation, the analysts distinguish routing and scheduling, consider split problems, investigate the characteristic features of shipping in logistics, find out the path flow problem, and disscuss the use of the commercial software to control the supply chains (Hennig et al., 2012).
It is clear to assume that optimization of oil delivery by ships concentrates more on a vehicle rather than a cargo. Every ship has its price, technical characteristics and size and is capable of transporting one cargo at a time. The amount of goods, loading time window, discharging time window and type are the specifications of a cargo. Due to the ability to serve additional spot cargoes, the investigators offer three element models. Its components include a multi-commodity flow formulation, a path flow formulation with pre-generated routes, and a column generation approach (Henning et al., 2012).The elastic set partitioning model, which can arrange the optimal schedule in advance, can also solve the problem and reduce pollution as well as so-called bunker fuel costs. The exploitation of ships will lessen, which will help avert the catastrophes in the oceans or seas.
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Cost minimization anticipates creating the models, where time window will precede the service and the voyage with the following end of the operation. When visiting a port, the transporting company pays the port fee, and the fuel prices increase each day of the voyage. That is why the vital issue remains choosing the ports with lower fees. Meeting the requirements of supply and demand is necessary for making the cargo constraints. Each sailing leg is to follow the requirements without the linked time windows.
Strategically considered oil transportation supposes fewer ports and a quarter of waiting time in the port. Each ship has its waiting time before it is on service. The delays in the process of transportation are mostly unacceptable. Still, service of a time window takes the allowed waiting time and is more rapid. Thus, in most cases it is a beneficial strategy.
The test system using the realistic oil transportation allowed combining the loading and discharging time windows due to the received results. Nevertheless, such strategies require pragmatic improvement and accumulating the exact experience.
The Supply Chain Management in Radio Frequency Identification
Lean production based on avoiding pitfalls and constant improvement are an essential aspect of satisfaction of the customer’s need. The beginnings of lean production go back to the Japanese automobile firm Toyota in 1960, as Toyota production system (TPS) or just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing. The lean production for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for improving the logistics efficiency includes a three-tier spare parts supply chain. The latter comprises a headquarters (HQ), the central distribution center (CDC), repair shops (RSs), some local distribution centers (LDCs). HQ and CDC are responsible for supplying spare parts to ten LDC on a daily basis. The latter ones, in their turn, supply spare parts to more than 400 local RS. HQ has an Information System (IS) and each CDC, LDC, and RS has a Warehouse Management System (WMS). Information and material flows need the basis for improvement of the effectiveness and efficiency by lean production and RFID (Chen, Cheng, & Huang, 2013). The statistical data show that fixed Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) RFID reader, four antennas installed in CDC and LDC shipping docks, and UHF passive tags helped achieve 99.5% average reading rate. The return-on-investment study shows the efficiency of the method applied for RFID.
Due to the advanced properties, RFID technologies simplify the work and help saving the labor force. Besides, its application to the logistics will help improve its workability as well as ensure “replacement of labor through automation, cycle time reduction, enabling self-service, and loss of prevention” (Chen et al., 2013).
Value stream mapping (VSM) technique proved to be helpful at all the stages of bringing the product from raw material to the customer delivery. Many analysts mark the efficiency of the technology in reducing risks and providing constant improvement.
The return-on-investment (ROI) analysis for RFID applies itself differently according to the type and the peculiarities of the company, and its strategy in general. Using the evaluation methods the managers can model and experiment with the business planning in the pilot projects that will help confirm the validity and sufficiency of ROI and provide high profits.
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Various schemes of transferring information according to hierarchical system show RFID as a good instrument in projecting and experimenting with different tactics for arranging the system of the enterprise. RFID information system in 922 MHz and 928 MHz frequency range allows to read and share information. Moreover, it creates a simplified logistics system that improves the productive capacity, service quality, the speed of production, etc.
Logistics and transportation development enable new technologies to improve business in general. Oil producers prefer the maritime transport, other kinds of production choose radio frequencies as efficient, optimal, and cost-saving media to satisfy the needs of the client and simplify the overall production procedure. The study of the basics of logistics should start at schools to develop new ideas, to give understanding of inventions, to create new technologies, and to efficiently improve the existing ones.