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Classification of Living Things

Introduction

A great variety of animals and plant existing in the world has led scientists to organize them into groups. The classification has been based on similarities and dissimilarities of observable characteristics. Classification enables every organism to be identified and to be studied. So, by classifying living things scientists and scholar all over the world are able to identify the organisms being studied or referred to in scientific investigations and publications. A newly discovered organism is identified and placed within the established classification system.

Animals are classified into kingdoms according to the following features; locomotion of animals looking for food, water, space, mate and running away from a predator. Number of cells the organism body structure has and whether or not those cells have nucleus. Lastly, whether an organism makes it own food through photosynthesis process or obtains it from other organisms.

The following are the distinguishing characteristic of each kingdom; kingdom animalia organism have many cells or they are multicellular; cells have nucleus; they move from one place to another looking for food, mate, water and running away from a predator, and obtaining food from other organisms. Kingdom fungi organisms have one or many cells; cells have nucleus; they do not move from one place to another and obtained food from other organisms. Kingdom Plantae organisms are multicellular; cells have nucleus and cell wall; they do not move and make their own food or energy through photosynthesis processes. Kingdom protoctista organisms have one or many cells; cells have nucleus, some of them move about while others do not, make their own food through photosynthesis or obtain food from other organisms, and lack complex organ system. Kingdom archaebacteria organisms are unicellular, no cell nucleus, makes their own food by photosynthesis or obtain food from other organisms, and live in oxygen free environments. Kingdom eubacteria organisms are unicellular, no cells nucleus, some move from one place to another, and some makes their own food through photosynthesis or obtain food from other organisms,

Method

Choose one specimen at a time, drag it into the magnifying glass, and obtained data are recorded in the table to decide which kingdom the specimen belongs.

Results

Scientific name

Common name

Type of cells

Locomotion

Nutrition

Kingdom

Paramecium aurelia

 

unicellular

Swim

Feed on decaying plants and tiny organisms

Protoctista

Psilotum nudum

Whisk fern

Multicellular

Does not move

Make it own food through photosynthesis process

Plantae

 

chenille plant[G2] 

Multicellular

Does not move

Make it own food through photosynthesis process

Plantae

Ganoderma applanatum

Artists conk

Multicellular

Does not move

Obtained food from decaying trees

fungi

Metridium senile

Plumose anemone

Multicellular

move

Obtain food from tiny fish

Animalia

Methanopyrus

 

unicellular

Move by whiplike tail

Make own food from hydrogen and carbon in the atmosphere

Archaebacteria

Lithops

Living stone

Multicellular

Does not move

Make it own food through photosynthesis process

Plantae

Taenia solium

Tapeworm

Multicellular

Does not move

Feed on food eaten by other living organism

Animalia

Ceratomyxa fruticulosa

Slime mold

Multicellular

Does not move

Feeds on rotting woods and leaves

Fungi

Sargassum natans

Sargasso weed

Multicellular

move

Make it own food through photosynthesis process

Plantae

Gorgonian ventalina

Caribbean sea fan

Multicellular

move

Feed on tiny organism

Animalia

 

Anabean

unicellular

Does not move

Make it own food through photosynthesis process

Eubacteria

Bacillus subtilis

 

Unicellular

Move by Whiplike tails

Feed on rotting leaves

Eubacteria

Euglena gracilis

 

Unicellular

Move by Whiplike tails

Make it own food through photosynthesis process

Protoctista

Methanosarcina barkeri

 

Unicellular

Move by Whiplike tails

Make it own energy from inorganic chemicals in it environment

Archaebacteria

Conclusion

Specimens form kingdom eubacteria and archaebacteria was difficult to classify because they all share the same characteristics. Scientist can use types of growth to classify organisms because animals’ growth is non-continuous, while that of plant is continuous and localized at the meristems of roots and stems. Many people classify item to buy with priority of urge and need. From the list of many items, one chooses the most essential commodity to buy and forego other item with less urge.  Animals and plant differ not only structurally, but also in the way they carry out biological processes. For example, plant is autotrophic (make their own food through photosynthesis process), while animals are heterotrophic (obtain nutrients indirectly by eating plants and other organisms). Animal growth stops or slows down when it reaches maturity, while plant growth is continuous and localized at meristems of roots and stems. Animals can move from one place to another, while plant does not have the power of locomotion.

Animals and plants carry out similar biological processes such as; both carry out cell respiration to produce energy for growth, reproduce to give new individual of the same species, excrete waste product out of their cells to prevent toxicity of the cells, detects and responds to changes in its environment such as change of temperature, and take out gaseous exchange in order to carry out cell respiration.

Differences between fungi and plants are as follows; Plant o is multicellular, while fungi have one or many cells; plant make their own food through photosynthesis processes, while fungi obtained food from feeding other organisms. To classify the new species if it is plant or fungi, identify if specimen uses chlorophyll to carry out photosynthesis. If it contains chlorophyll, it is classified as plant species because it can make it own food and if it does not have chlorophyll it is classified as fungi.

Reference

Lina S. (2004). Certificate biology. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.


 

 

 

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