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Biotechnology Techniques

Biotechnology Techniques

Biologics is the scientific process by which the human biological materials are reproduced and used in the process of curing diseases. The biologic technology is the use of genetic engineering to produce the necessary substances for treating illnesses. This method can be applied to engineer the blood clotting factors, produce proteins, antibodies and hormones. The biologic technology is significant for the people’s health. It is used in the productions of medicines and treatment products as well as human therapy. The proteins produced using the biological processes are utilized as nutritional supplements and as patient treatment mechanism. Gene therapy is one of the most useful areas of biotechnology since it is applied in the treatment of diseases like cancer, thrombosis, rheumatoid arthritis among others. Gene mapping technology has led to the development of genetic treatment therapies. Moreover, scientists have come up with artificial organs to save lives using biologics (Saini, 2010). The paper will discuss three techniques and how they are applied in biologics.

Cell-Based Protein Production System

Cell-based protein production system is the biotechnology technique for generation of proteins in plants and animals. The chief principle of this method is the manipulation of the human, animal or plant gene expression. The result of this process is the expression of the major recombinant genes in the target organisms. The whole process of gene expression is supported by some side processes such as the recombinant DNA transcription and the use of RNA messengers. The mRNA is translated into a polypeptide chain and is manipulated to produce the desired type of protein (Prugnaud & Trouvin, 2012). The location of this process may be inside or outside the protein producing cell. The products of this technique are used in biotechnology and medical processes. The proteins are applied in biopharmaceuticals to produce insulin and other enzymes and in the treatment of diseases such as diabetes.

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The cell expression process begins with the introduction of the foreign DNA into the target cell. The host cells would then respond through a biological process to produce the desired proteins. Some of the most common hosts in biotechnology include eukaryotes, yeast and bacteria. The latter are used frequently because it leads to the production of large amounts of protein materials. These proteins produced by the bacteria have found their application in the X-ray crystallography.

The problem of using eukaryotes in protein expression lays in the fact that they produce little amounts of the same. The substance produced by this source has also been found to be inapplicable in many biological processes, because it is insoluble and thus difficult to retrieve. The recovery process would require harsh denaturants and protein folding. The technologists employ the multiple cells to deal with this problem by countering the effects of protein folding that come from the use of eukaryotes. The biotechnologists apply combined organisms to produce high yields and productivity by redesigning the epigenetic features.

Recombinant Antibody Technology

Antibodies are biological materials that are majorly used as anti-disease fighting agents. These substances are applied in medical research and in the development of drugs. The mouse ascite method has been very effective in production of large volumes of the antibodies. This approach has raised a lot of controversy because of the effects it has on the rodents which are used as hosts. The new in vitro technique has been adopted and employed as a viable alternative to the ascite method.

The new method has also raised concerns about the welfare of the animals used in the technology. This led to the introduction of the new mAbs technique to deal with the problem of animal conditions raised by the other two approaches. The solution was found in the recombinant antibody production (rAbs). The process during which the antibodies are produced from human cells. These extracts are used in the laboratory to improve their production capacity. This new method eliminates the role of animals in antibody production (Khan, 2014). The antibodies are produced as a response of the immune system to materials it considers to be foreign. The antibodies created in the lab are used in medical research and in the treatment of diseases.

The mAbs have the capacity to bind the antigens together, target unwanted cells and destroy them, neutralize the effects of the disease-causing cells in an organism. Because of the three roles outlined above, the antibody production technology has increased the effectiveness of treatment of diseases, cancer therapy and correction of auto-immune disorders. The other area that this technology has benefited is toxicology.

The antibodies are used to determine the levels of drugs and other proteins in the organisms’ biological fluids. They are further employed in protein analysis.

The antibody production is a four-stage process. These steps comprise of development of a library for the genes which is displayed on the surface of the cell; the antibodies are then retrieved; the retrieved antibodies are then modified according to the intended characteristics; the antibodies are then produced in mass in the lab through the ecosystem culturing. There is a controversy in the process of obtaining the human cells because of the adverse effects this process could have on the subjected individual.

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Production of Recombinant Vitamin K-Dependent Clotting Factors

Recombinant vitamin K-dependent clotting factor is the primary curative element for the treatment of bleeding problems, sepsis and hemophilia. This substance is synthesized using the eukaryotic cells because of their abundance of the vitamin. The factors undergo the process of gene translation after which they are retrieved and modified so as to make them have the required properties.

These functional recombinant proteins are then yielded in mass. This is because the cells of the host may not produce the required yield due to several biological limitations. The biotechnologists resorted to a novel technology to increase the yields beyond the capacity of the organisms (Prugnaud &‎ Trouvin, 2012). The method uses modified eukaryotic cells which are altered to produce y-carbonylated vitamin K factors. The proteins are independent and functional. The stabilized cells could produce factors VII and IX. The other byproduct is functional proteins.

The major benefit of this technology is the increase in the production capacity of the recombinant vitamin factor. It seems to be the only available technology in the production of the factor. The latter is used in the treatment of bleeding-related problems such as sepsis, hemophilia, and others. This technique has the advantage of using lower forms of organism. This helps to avoid the issues related to adverse effects as mentioned in the other biologics methods.

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Conclusion

Biologics is the process of producing the human biological materials in large quantities for uses in biological processes. The development of this field has brought great benefits in medicine, drug production, and treatment of disorders as well as in industrial production. There are several latest technological developments in the production of these materials. These include cell-based protein production system, recombinant antibody technology and production of recombinant the vitamin novel K-dependent clotting factors. These processes use cells of organisms as the base of the process.

The products are extracted and reproduced in the lab. These substances have impact on the biological systems of the organisms. Because of the effective improvements, modifications have been made as solution. The use of biotechnology processes has led to new treatment methods and new discoveries in drugs development. It is obvious that the benefits of the discussed technologies outweigh the adverse effects. The development in this discipline is thus progressive and beneficial to the modern world. The field of human health is the largest beneficiary of these technologies (Raunakms, 2010).