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Biomechanical Movement Analysis

Biomechanical Movement Analysis

Biomechanics refers to the study of structure and functions of biological systems including animals, organs, plats, cells as well as humans through means of mechanics. The principles in classical mechanics can be applied in order to study human motions in order to provide people with a deep understanding of both internal as well as external forces that act on one’s body during the time of movement. Muscles play vital roles in generating forces along with controlling movements. It is vital to note that there are different processes of studying biomechanics of movement by human beings. The two main approaches of studying biomechanics include forward dynamics as well as inverse dynamics. In this case, either of them can be applied in the determination of joint kinetics such as to estimate joint movements in a movement. Forward dynamics process involves neutral command as the input to the entire system. Therefore, forward dynamics tends to specify the levels of activation of human muscles hence can be estimated using models of optimization. On the other hand, inverse dynamics approach involves measuring a problem from its opposite side. In this case, the position is measured against the external sources that act on a certain body. For instance, in gait analysis, the position used for tracking targets that are linked to the segments may be recorded by a camera system along with the external forces that can be recorded using force platform.

Most importantly, the coaching Association of Canada’s National Coaching Certification Program (NCCP) provided the four categories of the seven principles of biomechanics including stability, maximum effort, linear motion, and angular motion. The stability principle holds that the lower the middle of a mass, the bigger the supporting base and that the closer the middle of the item or mass it is to the base supporting it, and the bigger the mass hence the more that the stability rises. A good example of such a sport is sumo wrestling. The second principle is the maximum effort that holds that production of maximum drive or force needs application of all joint movements contributing to the work’s objective (McGinnis 2013). A good example falling in the second principle is golf. The third principle of biomechanics is the maximum velocity that holds that emission of maximum velocity needs application of joints starting from the largest to the smallest. A good example of such a sport is hockey slapshot. Applied impulse is the next principle that states that the bigger the impulse, the higher the velocity increase and a good example of such a movement would be slam-dunking during basketball game. The fifth principle was given as direction that indicates that a movement tends to occur in the opposite direction of the applied force and such a movement would be that of a high jumper of a cyclist. The sixth principle would be angular motion that holds that angular motion is usually emitted through application of drivers acting at a distance from the axis. A good example of such movement would be found in baseball pitchers. Angular momentum would be found in divers and states that angular momentum is usually constant whenever an athlete or even an item is free in the atmosphere.

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It is also vital to note that coaches benefit significantly from understanding biomechanics, the principles and the analysis of the movements. Understanding biomechanics helps coaches to determine the areas that need improvement during a sport. This begins from tactics, mental game, drill progressions and lesson plans among other sectors needed by the coach in order to coach a game in an effective manner. This will also help coaches to assist players to improve their speeds and maintain their health while at the same time reducing injury chances. For instance, understanding stroke biomechanics becomes vital to the coach in order to ensure that the players are effective whenever they are hitting their foreheads, serves, volleys and backhands.

Biomechanical Movement Analysis: Long Jump

For watching the athlete do the long jump, it is clear that the athlete has to be a quick sprinter, possess strong legs as well as be effectively coordinated in order to do the complex take-off, flight along with the landing manoeuvres. It has become clear that there are several researches in biomechanics, but only a few of them have gone ahead to investigate the way an athlete performs as he prepares for a takeoff. This discussion offers a pattern approach of recognition of all that is applied in analyzing the movements of structures during the final strides of this approach run along with the jump. It has become evident that success in the game will depend on the athlete’s ability to change his horizontal process velocity into a horizontal along with vertical takeoff velocity in the supporting phase during the jump. In this case, vertical takeoff is usually prepared through lowering the center of gravity in the final strides of this approach run. This analysis includes different phases or parts of the standing long jump.

Run-Up

This is a crucial part in the game since it would be impossible to give out a perfect performance in the absence of a quick, as well as an accurate run-up. There are three main tasks at this stage including accelerating to almost maximum speed of the player lowering the athlete’s body in the final steps and come into a position of complete take-off. The last task would be to place the athlete’s take-off food in an accurate manner on a take-off board. In this case, the distance that is usually achieved seems to depend on the player’s horizontal velocity during the termination of the run-up. It seems that the athlete has reached almost 95% to 99% if his maximum speed of sprinting. The athlete is question appears to use a longer run-up since it would take him significant time to build his sprinting speed. He has begun his run-up from a steady position having his one foot ahead of the other. In this case, the long jumper is willing to produce the best jump distance hence the need to place take-off foot near the take-off line although not over it. The line is usually marked at the front end of the board. It seems that the run-up phases contain two main phases as well including the stage at which an individual accelerates and produces a stereotyped pattern stride along with the zeroing phase when an athlete changes the stride pattern in order to eradicate any spatial mistakes that could have occurred in the initial phase.

Most importantly, the last few strikes force that athlete to use visual perceptions of the distance he is from board in order to adjust the size of strides. This stage is also the one whereby the athlete tries to change from the run-off stage to the take-off stage. This seems to be a skilled athlete since he is able to maintain his normal sprinting spends until he is almost two strides before his take-off. He has then begun to provide a big vertical range of motion (ROM) in order to be able to produce his upward velocity. In this case, the athlete is able to lower his center of mass towards the height needed and attempts to maintain a flat trajectory position in the final stride before he takes-off. Moreover, this takes place in order to ensure that the athlete develops a center of mass that has minimized downward velocity towards the vertical side at a point of touchdown. Therefore, it is clear that the upward vertical impulse emitted by the athlete in the take-off gives the best vertical velocity during the take-off. It has appeared that the athlete enters into the take-off with the take-off leg swept beneath and back to him. Therefore, the leg used for take-off tends to have a negative velocity that is relative to the player’s center of mass despite the fact that the velocity of the leg adjacent to the earth is not reduced to zero.

Take-off

Every athlete is required to maintain an appropriate take-off in order to make use of the best part of his velocity during the run-up. In this case, the athlete is seen to place his take-off leg ahead of his centres of mass at the touchdown in order to produce necessary position at the beginning of his take-off. His body also pivots up as well as over the take-off leg. At this time, the take-off foot tends to flex and extend. In attempts to increase the time span of leg contact, the player tends to plan his foot ahead of his centre of mass at the touchdown. It seems that there is an achieved optimum foot angle at the touchdown that grants the most effective compromise existing between the vertical propulsive impulses and the horizontal braking impulse. The take-off mechanism is notable before the touchdown when the player pre-tenses his muscles of his take-off leg. Therefore, the subsequent bending by the athlete’s leg in the take-off emerges from the forces of landing. Flexion of his take-off seems unavoidable hence making it limited through the eccentric force of the player’s leg muscles. 

Most importantly, activating the player’s muscles during the take-off maintains the legs’ straight during the process. Moreover, the explosive extension in the knee, ankle and the hip of the player in the final half of take-off is followed by vigorous swinging of both the arms and the free leg. This tends to place a player’s centre of mass bigger and further in front of take-off line during the take-off hence believed to enable a player’s velocity during the take-off. The take-off angle appears to be less than the standard 45 degrees. Researchers have found that athletes tend to experience a reaction force from the ground and it tends to alter the speed along with the direction of a player’s centre of mass. In this case, the horizontal drive at the take-off point of time has been described as predominantly backwards braking force and this occurs for a short time during the end of a take-off. The ground reaction force tends to produce forward or even backward torque on the player’s centre of mass and this will depend on the line of action and if the force travels behind or rather before the centre of mass of an athlete.

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Flight and Landing

It is at this phase that most jumpers either follow the hang position or involve themselves in a hitch-kick. This athlete seems to be involved in a hitch-kick movement in order to have full control of the rotation imparted to his body during the take-off. This allows him to attain the best possible landing position. This technique deals with an angular momentum in the flight session. The athlete uses his arms as well as legs to produce an evoking force that seems to cause a contrary reaction of his trunk. This maintains his upright position in the atmosphere. He then rotates his arms along with his legs ahead in a style that seems similar to running. Towards the final stage of the flight, the player is seen preparing to land by lifting his legs up and extends them ahead of his body.

In conclusion, one of the best aims of every coach is to offer assistance to athletes in order to boost their competency in sporting. It is also vital to help players achieve their outermost performance goals. In this way, contribution to the above outcomes would require coaches to understand the various spot-specific techniques through biomechanics along with the discipline’s principles in relevant sports. Standing Long-jump can be tricky if the coach does not have prior knowledge of what happens in the player’s body movements. This knowledge helps coaches to understand that it is important to apply forces in the routes that one wants to move. It also helps to understand the importance of positioning one’s body in order to emit the ground reaction force that is needed and to generate the required ground reaction forces through large muscle groups. The coaches will also be able to enable players to use the most appropriate combinations of drivers or forces along with timing in order to produce the required changes in motions. Coaches will also assist in the reduction of several impact forces in order to produce   maximum time that is required to alter motions. Above all, understanding biomechanics in standing long jump will help in improving the health of players. However, biomechanics faces several limitations in that the research models along with the protocols make it hard to compare existing outcomes of one’s study to another. Material properties of one’s muscle formation can also be varied making it difficult to make viable conclusions.