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Biology Essay

F1 generation also called the first filial generation is comprised of offspring resulting from a cross of between strains of two different genotypes. It can also be referred as offspring generation resulting from the cross of initial parents. Genetic composition (genotype) of the F1 generation is dependent on the characteristics of parents. On the other hand, their phenotype (physical characteristics) depends on the genetic composition of the crossing parents. Mendel’s pea garden was an experiment carried out by Mendel where he crossed peas having different genotypes to observe the characteristics of the offspring. Some of the conclusions made by Mendel after carrying out his experiment are; inheritance of certain characteristics is dependent on the genes of the parents. In addition, he stated that an offspring inherits one such characteristic (traits) from each parent and lastly, he stated that a trait may not be shown in the offspring but may be passed on to the next generations. The essay will respond to questions on genetics.

Part 1

  1. Pp and Pp

  2. Law of segregation is used in concluding on the genetic composition of the parents. This law states that a diploid individual possesses a pair of alleles for any particular trait and each parent passes one of the alleles randomly to the offspring. This demonstrates that while the offspring are both purple and white, the parents had a diploid genetic composition and thus Pp.

Part 2

a) after crossing the F1 generation offspring to get F2 generation, the genetic and physical characteristics of F2 generation is expected to change. Since F1 purple peas is a combination of both heterozygous and homozygous, F2 generation will be a combination of both white and purple peas. The ratio of the F2 generation peas is expected to be 3:1 (purple: white).

Part 3

  1. The probability of one plant is white dwarfed is 25%.

  2. This is because; both tall and purple traits are dominant in plants and thus will dominate in the offspring. The law used in the argument is the law of independent assortment that states that separate genes for separate traits are passed independently of one another from parents to offspring. That is the biological selection of a given gene pair of a trait to be passed from parent to offspring is not dependent on the selection of the other and that’s why both dwarf and white traits are present in the offspring.